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How do I reference a website with no date, no author and no page numbers?

257 views   |   0   0   |   Last updated on Nov 01, 2016    website

In text, you will need to substitute the title for the author information and include (n.d.) for no date. Use double quotation marks around the title, e.g.

(“The power of crowdsourcing,” n.d.)

Your reference list entry will look like:

The power of crowdsourcing. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www...

More information: How do you cite website material that has no author, no year and no page numbers?

See also: Missing pieces: How to write an APA style reference without all the information (APA Style Blog)

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How do I reference a quote from PowerPoint slides?

234 views   |   3   0   |   Last updated on Nov 01, 2016    Test

A quote from a PowerPoint presentation on Learn would be treated as a secondary citation.  For example if you wish to cite a quote by Hiday from a PowerPoint lecture presentation given by Lecturer Nikki Evans:   

In-text citation:

According to Hiday et al. (2001, as cited in Evans, 2015) …

 

Reference List:

Evans, N. (2015). Mental health and the construction of dangerousness [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://www.learn.canterbury.ac.nz/

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How do I reference the Treaty of Waitangi?

167 views   |   0   0   |   Last updated on Dec 09, 2015   

In-text citation
Treaty of Waitangi (1840) or (Treaty of Waitangi, 1840)

Citing a specific Treaty article:
Article 1 of the Treaty of Waitangi (1840)... or
The Treaty of Waitangi (1840, art. 1)... or
(Treaty of Waitangi, 1840, art. 1)

Reference list
Treaty of Waitangi, 1840. Retrieved from http://www.treatyofwaitangi.maori.nz/ (use the web address of the source you used)

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How do I reference the New Zealand Teachers Council Code of Ethics?

148 views   |   0   0   |   Last updated on May 09, 2016   

The code of ethics is available online, so it is referenced as a web document, i.e.

New Zealand Teachers Council. (2004). Code of ethics for registered teachers. Retrieved from http://www.teacherscouncil.govt.nz/required/ethics/codeofethics.stm

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How do I reference an electronic book (eBook)?

142 views   |   0   0   |   Last updated on May 09, 2016   

The eBook reference should include author, date, title (in italics) and source (DOI, if available; otherwise the URL). 

Author, A.  A. (Year). Title of book. http://dx.doi.org/...

Author, A.  A. (Year). Title of book. Retrieved from http://.... (no DOI available)

Examples:

If a DOI is available, use it, e.g.

Zhaoping, L. (2014). Understanding vision: Theory, models, and data. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199564668.001.0001

 

If there is no DOI, use the URL, e.g.

Zizek, S. (2008). Violence: Six sideways reflections. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.nz/books?id=StAeT3DjIyQC&redir_esc=y

 

If the URL is long, truncate it back to the home page URL for the eBook provider, e.g.

Murray, W. E., & Overton, J. (2014). Geographies of globalization (2nd ed.). Retrieved from http://www.canterbury.eblib.com

Book URL: http://www.canterbury.eblib.com.au.ezproxy.canterbury.ac.nz/patron/FullRecord.aspx?p=1783917&echo=1&userid=tj7xFkif4BU%3d&tstamp=1449176689&id=7CD34AFA34A0A0E70376922DA06EB6D3A3CA0B3B

Remove the ezproxy and other details following to create shortened URL: http://www.canterbury.eblib.com

 

A chapter in an edited eBook includes additional information about the chapter:

Author, A.  A. (Year). Title of chapter. In B. B. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pp. xxx–xxx). http://dx.doi.org/...

Author, A.  A. (Year). Title of chapter. In B. B. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pp. xxx–xxx). Retrieved from http://... (no DOI available)

 

More information: How do you cite an e-book? (APA Style Blog)

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I am using several different sections of a website.  Do I need to separately reference all the information or can I just reference the home page for the website?

122 views   |   0   0   |   Last updated on May 09, 2016   

If you are making a general statement about a website (not quoting or paraphrasing information from it), simply give the address in the text of your assignment, e.g.

The Statistics New Zealand website has a wide range of statistical data on New Zealand society (http://www.stats.govt.nz).

 

But if you quote or paraphrase information from different pages on a website, you will need to create a reference for each one. You will then have a series of references with the same author and date.  You can distinguish these by using a, b, c, etc in your in-text citation and reference list, e.g.

Say you are writing a paper about the work of the Ministry of Justice. You might quote or paraphrase from a number of pages on their website and your reference list should include a reference for each.

Ministry of Justice. (n.d.-a). Restorative justice. Retrieved from http://www.justice.govt.nz/policy/criminal-justice/restorative-justice

Ministry of Justice. (n.d.-b). Drivers of crime priority areas. Retrieved from http://www.justice.govt.nz/justice-sector/drivers-of-crime/drivers-of-crime-priority-areas/drivers-of-crime-priority-areas

Ministry of Justice. (n.d.-c). Supporting victims. Retrieved from http://www.justice.govt.nz/policy/supporting-victims

For your in-text citation you would use (Ministry of Justice, n.d.-a) or (Ministry of Justice, n.d.-b), etc.

Note: For references that have no date (signified by n.d.), use the following for the date: (n.d.-a), and (n.d.-b), etc.  If there is a date, omit the hyphen e.g. (2016a) or (2016b), etc.

Sources and more information: How do you cite an entire website (but not a specific document on that site)? and  How to cite multiple pages from the same website (APA Style Blog)

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How do I reference a poster?

117 views   |   2   0   |   Last updated on Jul 27, 2016    Poster

If it is a poster session from a conference, use the following format:

Author, I. N. (Year, month). Title of poster. Poster session presented at …….., location of conference.

Example:

Coggins, J., & McDonald, A. (2010, July). The importance of spatial statistics for Antarctic temperature reconstruction. Poster session presented at the Antarctica New Zealand Conference, Christchurch, New Zealand. Retrieved from http://www.phys.canterbury.ac.nz/atmos/documents/posters/Jack_Reconstructions_Poster_2010.pdf

If you don’t have a date, put n.d. in place of the date information. 

More information: How to cite materials from meetings and symposia (APA Style Blog)

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How do I cite something that has been reprinted from another source?

109 views   |   0   0   |   Last updated on May 09, 2016   

If you are referencing something that has been republished or reprinted, the reference list should include the date of the version you read. At the end, put “Reprinted from” in parentheses, with the original publication information, e.g.

Piaget, J. (1988). Extracts from Piaget’s theory (G. Gellerier & J. Langer, Trans.). In K. Richardson & S. Sheldon (Eds.), Cognitive development to adolescence: A reader (pp. 3–18). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. (Reprinted from Manual of child psychology, pp. 703–732, by P. H. Mussen, Ed., 1970, New York: Wiley)

In text use both dates, first the original version and then the version you read, separated by a slash e.g. (Piaget, 1970/1988).

Source and more information: http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2010/01/ (APA Style Blog)

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How do I reference an article from an online encyclopedia?

98 views   |   0   0   |   Last updated on May 09, 2016   

Reference in a similar way to a book chapter, e.g.

Author, A. A. (Year). Section title. In B. B. Editor (Ed.), Title of encyclopedia (edition if applicable, Vol. if applicable, pp. pages). Retrieved from http://...

Example

Lerner, R. M. (2001). Theories of infant and child development. In N. J. Smelser & P. B. Baltes (Eds.), International encyclopedia of the social & behavioral sciences (pp. 5548–5549). Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080430767016454

If there is no editor, just put the title of the work. If there is no date, use n.d., e.g.

Emmerson, S., & Smalley, D. (n.d.). Electro-acoustic music. In Grove Music Online. Retrieved from http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/08695

More about referencing Grove Music Online...

If there is a DOI, use the DOI instead of the URL, e.g.

Wellford, C. F. (2009). History and evolution of criminology. In J. M. Miller (Ed.), 21st century criminology: A reference handbook.  http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.canterbury.ac.nz/10.4135/9781412971997.n2 

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How do I reference a journal that has an issue but no volume number?

94 views   |   1   0   |   Last updated on May 09, 2016   

If there is an issue but no volume, and the issue numbers simply keep increasing with each issue, the issue number is treated like a volume number in the reference, e.g.

Wane, J. (2016). The right to fight. North & South, 358, 46–53.

 

But if the year appears with the issue number and acts like a volume number, so that the issue numbers start again at 1 each year, then the year does double duty as the (Year) and Volume in the reference, and the issue number appears in parentheses (), e.g.

Blum, E. S. (2010). Building healthier communities from the ground up. Banking and Community Perspectives, 2010(2), 3–10, 12.

 

Source and more information: http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2012/01/got-volume.html

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How do I reference PowerPoint slides from a conference presentation?

91 views   |   0   0   |   Last updated on May 09, 2016   

Available online?

Reference the slides directly in a similar manner to an electronic resource:

Presenter, I. I. (Year). Title of presentation [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://....

Not available online?

If the slides are not available on the web, reference them as an unpublished conference proceeding:

Presenter, I. I. (Year, Month). Title of presentation. Paper or poster session presented at the meeting of xxx, Location.

For example,

Adamson, R. J. (2015, August). How to cite a conference presentation.  Paper presented at the meeting of the University of Canterbury Library Association, Christchurch, New Zealand.

More information: APA Style Guide to Electronic References (p. 31)

How to Cite Materials from Meetings and Symposia (APA Style Blog)

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How do I reference an annual report downloaded from a company website?

90 views   |   0   0   |   Last updated on May 09, 2016   

Reference an annual report found on the web in a similar way to an eBook.  You will need to include, author, year, title and URL, e.g.

Fletcher Building. (2014). Fletcher Building annual report 2014. Retrieved from http://www.fbu.com/investor-centre/2014-annual-report/annual-report/download-report/

Source and more information: How to Cite an Annual Report in APA Style (APA Style Blog)

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How do I cite a standard?

85 views   |   0   0   |   Last updated on May 09, 2016    Standard APA Referencing

APA format would be:

Standard body as the Author. (Year). Standard Number:Standard Year: Title of Standard. Place of publication: Author.

It is a simple change from a book by adding the AZ/NZS number and year at the start of the title of the standard.  Thereafter the in-text citation would be simply AS/NZS 3823.2:2005 (Standards New Zealand, 2005)

 

Standards New Zealand. (2005). AS/NZS 3823.2:2005: Performance of electrical appliances: air conditioners and heat pumps: Part 2, Energy labelling and minimum energy performance standard (MEPS) requirements (5th ed.). Wellington, New Zealand: Author.

You will see that I have ignored Standards Australia even though it is a combined standard.

Subsequent in-text citation would be simply AS/NZS 3823.2 (2005), as the author is the referred to in the number of the standard.

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How do I reference an interview on a website?

83 views   |   0   0   |   Last updated on May 09, 2016   

If the interview has been published on a website, follow the following format:

Person-interviewed, I. N. (Year, Month Date). Interview title. Retrieved from http://www...

If the interview is in a journal, newspaper, television or radio programme, you will need to follow the reference format appropriate for that source (e.g. if you read it in a journal, reference it as a journal article).  If it is a television or radio broadcast, reference it accordingly, e.g. for a television programme: 

Person-interviewed, I. N. (Year, Month Date). Interview title. Title of television programme [Television broadcast]. Retrieved from http://www...

More information: http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2009/10/apa-style-for-citing-interviews.html (APA Style Blog)

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What do I do when there is no date?

81 views   |   0   0   |   Last updated on May 09, 2016   

If there is no date, use n.d. in text and in the reference list, e.g.

Clarke (n.d.)

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How do I directly quote from a website with no page numbers?

78 views   |   0   0   |   Last updated on May 09, 2016   

When citing a direct quotation from a website, include as much information as needed for the reader to locate the material.

It might be possible to provide a paragraph number: (Hanrahan, 2010, para. 5).

Otherwise, include the heading and the number of the paragraphs that follows it: (Fraser, 2011, Discussion section, paras. 2–3).

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How do I reference something with continuous publication dates (e.g. 2005–2010)?

77 views   |   0   0   |   Last updated on May 09, 2016   

Sometimes web documents or multivolume works are published over the course of a number of years.  In this case, use the date range as the publication date both in text and in the reference list, e.g. Smith (2005–2010).

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How do I reference an audio podcast when there is a producer but also guest speakers?

76 views   |   0   0   |   Last updated on May 09, 2016   

Below is an example of a general reference for an audio podcast:

Rose, J. (Producer). (2012, September 9). In search of universal fairness [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://....

In the text of your essay, you can include details about contributors. For example, Margaret MClure is interviewed in the above podcast and if you want to reference something she has said, you would do it in the following way:

MClure explains the issues as … (Rose, 2012).

Source and more information: http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2012/10/how-to-cite-a-podcast.html (APA Style Blog)

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How do I reference Suffixes in author names (e.g. Jr., Sr., etc.)?

72 views   |   0   0   |   Last updated on May 09, 2016   

Suffixes like Jr., III, etc., are not included in the in-text citation but are included in the reference list.

Use commas to separate the author name from the suffix, e.g.

Owens, R. E., Jr. (2016). Language development: An introduction. Boston, MA: Pearson.

In-text citation: (Owens, 2016)

Baker, W. H., Jr., & Rolfes, K. D. (2015). Lean for the long term: Maintaining a continuous improvement culture after a management change. Boca Raton, FL: CRC.

In-text citation: (Baker & Rolfes, 2015)

Source & more information:  http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2012/03/jr-sr-and-other-suffixes-in-apa-style.html (APA Style Blog)

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How do I reference a magazine that has a month but no volume or issue number?

68 views   |   0   0   |   Last updated on May 09, 2016   

Magazines and newsletters are not academic sources so often don’t have volume or issue numbers.  If this is the case, include the month immediately after the date, e.g.

Wright, M. (2015, September). Kiwis high users of residential aged care. HRC News. Retrieved from http://hrc.govt.nz/sites/default/files/24088%20HRC%20News%20AUG%2015-online.pdf

Note: If you have viewed the magazine or newsletter online you will need to include the URL for the article.

Source and more information: http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2012/01/got-volume.html

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